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Food Additives


Number
Name
Comments
E100
Curcumin
orange-yellow color, derived from turmeric, a member of the ginger family
E101
Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
yellow color, it's a vitamin!!!
E102
Tartrazine
yellow color, commonly used, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are soft drinks, confectionary, cordials, pickles
E104
Quinoline yellow
not permitted in Australia
E107
Yellow 2G
yellow color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. People who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it. Typical products are soft drinks
E110
Sunset yellow FCF
yellow color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Some people show allergic reactions to it (rashes, swelling, vomiting). Typical products are cordials, confectionary, packet soups
E120
Cochineal, carminic acid
red color, the HASCG* recommends to avoid it. Rarely used
E122
Carmoisine
red color, the HASCG* recommends to avoid it. Sensitive people and asthmatics may show allergic reactions to it. Typical products are confectionary, marzipan, jelly crystals
E123
Amaranth
purplish-red color, banned in the United States in 1976, still used in Australia. Avoid it! Typical products are cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings, jelly crystals
E124
Brilliant scarlet 4R
red color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Asthmatics and people with aspirin sensitivity may show allergic reactions
E127
Erythrosine
red color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Might increase thyroid hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism. Can cause sensitivity to light. Typical products are custard mix, biscuits, glace' cherries, canned cherries and strawberries
E128
Red 2G
not permitted in Australia
E129
Allura red AC
red color, may be an allergen in allergic skin conditions. Typical products are biscuits, cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings
E131
Patent blue
not permitted in Australia
E132
Indigo carmine
blue color, people with allergies should avoid it. May cause nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing problems and other allergic reactions. Typical products are confectionary, biscuits
E133
Brilliant blue FCF
blue color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it
E140
Chlorophyll
green to olive color, naturally part of man's diet
E141
Cpper complexes of chloropyll and chlorophyllins
olive color, no adverse effects are known
E142
Green S
green color, seems safe in small quantities
E150
Caramel
dark brown color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey, biscuits, pickles
E151
Brilliant black BN
black color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it
E153
Vegetable carbon
black colour, banned in the United States, still used in Australia
E154
Brown FK
not permitted in Australia
E155
Chocolate brown HT
brown colour, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are chocolate cake mixes
E160(a)
Carotene, alpha-, beta-, gamma-
orange-yellow colour, converts to vitamin A in the body
E160(b)
Annatto (bixin, norbixin)
peach colour, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are dairy products
E160(c)
Capsanthin
not permitted in Australia
E160(d)
Lycopene
not permitted in Australia
E160(e)
Beta-apo-8'-carotenal
orange color, no adverse effects are known
E160(f)
Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid
orange color, no adverse effects are known
E161
Xanthophylls
yellow color, unlikely to produce adverse effects
E161(g)
Canthaxanthin
orange color, no adverse effects are known
E162
Beet red, betanin
purple color, no adverse effects are known
E163
Anthocyanins
violet color, seems safe
E170
Calcium carbonate
no adverse effects are known
E171
Titanium dioxide
white color, no adverse effects are known
E172
Iron oxides
seems safe
E173
Aluminium
not permitted in Australia
E174
Silver
not permitted in Australia
E175
Gold
not permitted in Australia
E180
Pigment rubine
not permitted in Australia
E181
Tannic acid, tannins
clarifying agent in alcoholic drinks

Number
Name
Comments
E200
Sorbic acid
possible skin irritant
E201
Sodium sorbate
no known adverse effects
E202
Potassium sorbate
no known adverse effects
E203
Calcium sorbate
no known adverse effects
E210
Benzoic acid
the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are soft drinks, juices, cordials, chilly pastes
E211
Sodium benzoate
the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products see 210
E212
Potassium benzoate
People with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions. Typical products see210
E213
Calcium benzoate
see 212
E214
Ethyl4-hydroxybenzoate
not permitted in Australia
E215
Sodium salt
not permitted in Australia
E216
Propybaraben
possible contact allergen
E217
Propyl4-hydroxybenzoate
not permitted in Australia
E218
Methylparaben
allergic reactions possible, mainly affecting the skin
E19
Methyl4-hydroxybenzoate
not permitted in Australia
E220
Sulphur dioxides
the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. May cause allergic reactions in asthmatics, destroys vitamin B1, typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products
E221
Sodium sulphite
see 220
E222
Sodium bisulsulphite
see 220
E223
Sodium metabisulphite
see 220
E224
Potassium metabisulphite
see 220
E225
Potassium sulphite
see 220
E226
Calcium sulphite
not permitted in Australia
E227
Calcium hydrogen sulphite
not permitted in Australia
E228
Potassium bisulphite
see 220
E230
Biphenyl
not permitted in Australia, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are citrus fruit
E231
2-Hydroxybiphenyl
not permitted in Australia, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are pears, carrots, peaches, plums, prunes, sweet potatoe, citrus fruit, pineapples, tomatoes, peppers, cherries, nectarines
E232
Sodium biphenyl-2-yl oxide
see 231
E233
Thiabendazole
not permitted in Australia, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products arecitrus fruits, apples, pears, potatoes, bananas, mushrooms, meat, milk
E234
Nisin
no known adverse effects
E235
Natamycin
sometimes used medically to treat candidiasis, can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhoea and skin irritation. Typical products are meat, cheese
E236
Formic acid
not permitted in Australia
E237
Sodium formate
not permitted in Australia
E238
Calcium formate
not permitted in Australia
E239
Hexamine
not permitted in Australia
E249
Potassium nitrite
not permitted in foods for young children, may cause dizzynesss, headaches, difficult breathing,potential carcinogen, typical products are meat
E250
Sodium nitrite
the HACSG* recommends to avoid it (see 249)
E251
Sodium nitrate
see 250
E252
Potassium nitrate
see 249
E260
Acetic acid
no known adverse effects
E261
Potassium acetate
should be avoided by people with impaired kidney function. Typical products are sauces, pickles
E262
Sodium diacetate, sodium acetate
no known adverse effects
E264
Ammonium acetate
can cause nausea and vomiting
E270
Lactic acid
could cause problems in very young babies, typical products are infant formula, confectionary, dressings, soft drinks
E280
Propionic acid
no known adverse effects
E281
Sodium propionate
may be linked to migraines, typical products are flour products
E282
Calcium propionate
see 281
E283
Potassium propionate
see 281
E290
Carbon dioxide
may increase the effect of alcohol, typical products are wine, soft drinks, confectionary

Number
Name
Comments
E296
DL-Malic acid
infants and young children should avoid it
E297
Fumaric acid
no known adverse effects
E300
Ascorbic acid
vitamin C
E301
Sodium ascorbate
sodium salt of vitamin C
E302
Calcium ascorbate
vitamin C, may increase the formation of calcium axalate stones
E303
Potassium ascorbate
potassium salt of vitamin C
E304
Ascorbyl palmitate
same function as vitamin C
E306, E307 E308, E309
Tocopherols
vitamin E
E310
Propyl gallate
not permitted in foods for infants and young children, may cause gastric or skin irritation, typical products are margarine, fats, oils
E311
Octyl gallate
see 310
E312
Dodecyl gallate
see 310
E317
Erythorbic acid
no known adverse effects
E318
Sodium erythorbate
no known adverse effects
E319
tert-Butylhydroquinone
the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. May cause nausea, vomiting, delirium. A dose of 5g is considered fatal. Typical products are fats, oils, margarine
E320
Butulated hydroxyanisole
the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Not permitted in foods for infants or young children. Typical products are fats, oils, margarine, nuts, instant potato products
E321
Butylated hydroxytoluene
the HACSG* recommend to avoid it. Not permitted in foods for infants or young children. Typical products are nuts
E322
Lecithins
nutritious and non-toxic
E325
Sodium lactate
young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions
E326
Potassium lactate
see 325
E327
Calcium lactate
see 325
E328
Ammonium lactate
see 325
E329
Magnesium lactate
see 325
E330
Citric acid
occurs naturally in citrus fruits
E331
Sodium citrates
no known adverse effects
E332
Potassium citrates
no known adverse effects
E333
Calcium citrates
no known adverse effects in small quantities
E334
Tartaric acid
no known adverse effects in small quantities
E335
Sodium tartrates
no known adverse effects
E336
Potassium tartrates
no known adverse effects
E337
Sodium potassium tartrate
no known adverse effects
E338
Phosphoric acid
no known adverse effects
E339
Sodium orthophosphates
high intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium
E340
Potassium orthophosphates
see 339
E341
Calcium orthophosphates
no known adverse effects
E343
Magnesium phosphates
essential minerals
E350
Sodium malates
no known adverse effects
E351
Potassium malate
no known adverse effects
E352
Calcium malates
no known adverse effects
E353
Metatartaric acid
no known adverse effects
E354
Calcium tartrate
seems safe
E355
Adipic acid
no known adverse effects
E357
Potassium adipate
no known adverse effects
E363
Succinic acid
not permitted in Australia
E365
Sodium fumarate
no known adverse effects
E366
Potassium fumarate
no known adverse effects
E367
Calcium fumarate
no known adverse effects
E370
1,4-Heptonolactone
not permitted in Australia
E375
Niacin
vitamin B3
E380
Tri-ammonium citrate
may interfere with liver and pancreas function
E381
Ammonium ferric citrates
essential mineral
E385
Calcium disodium EDTA
not permitted in Australia

Number
Name
Comments
E400
Alginic acid
no known adverse effects in small quantities. Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients
E401
Sodium alginate
see 400
E402
Potassium alginate
see 400
E403
Ammonium alginate
see 400
E404
Calcium alginate
see 400
E405
Propylene glycol alginate
no known adverse effects
E406
Agar
see 400
E407
Carrageenan
seems quite safe in small quantities
E410
Locust bean gum
no known adverse effects in small quantities, may lower chlesterol levels
E412
Guar gum
see 410
E413
Tragacanth
possible contact allergy
E414
Acacia
possible allergen, soothes irritations of mucous membranes
E415
Xanthan gum
no known adverse effects
E416
Karaya gum
possible allergen
E420
Sorbitol
not permitted in foods for infants and young children, can cause gastric disturbance. Typical products are dried fruits, confectionary, pastries, low caorie foods
E421
Mannitol
possible allergen, may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. Typical products are low calorie foods
E422
Glycerin
Large quantities can cause headaches, thirst, nausea and high blood sugar levels. Typical products are liquers, confectionary, dried fruit, low calorie foods
E432
Polysorbate 20
not permitted in Australia
E433
Polysorbate 80
may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
E434
Polysorbate 40
not permitted in Australia
E435
Polysorbate 60
see 433
E436
Polysorbate 65
see 433
E440(a)
Pectin
Large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort
E440(b)
Amidated pectin
no known adverse effects
E441
Gelatine
possible allergen, may contain 220, asthmatics and people allergic to sulphites beware!!!!!
E442
Ammonium phosphatides
no known adverse effects
E450
Sodium and potassium polyphosphates
High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium
E460
Powdered cellulose
no adverse effects known
E461
Methylcellulose
can cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction
E463
Hydroxypropyl-cellulose
not permitted in Australia
E464
Hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose
no known adverse effects
E465
methylethylcellulose
no known adverse effects
E466
Sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose
no known adverse effects
E469
Sodium caseinate
no known adverse effects
E470
salts of fatty acids
not permitted in Australia
E471
Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
no known adverse effects
E472
fatty acid esters of glycerol
no known adverse effects
E473
Sucrose esters of fatty acids
no known adverse effects
E474
Sucroglycerides
not permitted in Australia
E475
Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids
no known adverse effects
E476
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate
no known adverse effects
E477
Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids
no known adverse effects
E480
Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate
awaiting results of studies
E481
Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate
no known adverse effects
E482
Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate
no known adverse effects
E483
Stearyl tartrate
not permitted in Australia
E491
Sorbitan monos tearate
no known adverse effects
E492
Sorbitan tristearate
may increase th absorption of fat-soluble substances
E493
Sorbitan monolaurate
not permitted in Australia
E494
Sorbitan mono-oleate
not permitted in Australia
E495
Sorbitan monopalmitate
not permitted in Australia

Number
Name
Comments
E500
Sodium carbonades
no known adverse effects in small quantities
E501
Potassium carbonates
no known adverse effects
E503
Ammonium carbonates
irritant to mucous membranes
E504
Magnesium carbonate
medically used as an antacid and laxative
E507
Hydrochloric acid
safe in small quantities
E508
Potassium chloride
large quantities can cause gastric ulceration
E509
Calcium chloride
no known adverse effects
E510
Ammonium chloride
should be avoided by people with impaired liver or kidney function. Typical products are flour products
E511
Magnesium chloride
magnesium is an essential mineral
E513
Sulphuric acid
not permitted in Australia
E514
Sodium sulphate
may upset the body's water balance
E515
Potassium sulphate
no known adverse effects
E516
Calcium sulphate
no known adverse effects
E518
Magnesium sulphate
a laxative
E519
Copper sulphate
essential mineral
E524
Sodium hydroxide
not permitted in Australia
E525
Potassium hydroxide
not permitted in Australia
E526
Calcium hydroxide
no adverse effects in small quantities
E527
Ammonium hydroxide
not permitted in Australia
E528
Magnesium hydroxide
not permitted in Australia
E529
Calcium oxide
safe in small quantities
E530
Magnesium oxide
not permitted in Australia
E535
Sodium ferrocyanide
no adverse effects known
E536
Potassium ferrocyanide
low toxicity
E540
Dicalcium diphosphate
not permitted in Australia
E541
Sodium aluminium phosphate
not permitted in Australia
E542
Bone phosphate
no known adverse effects
E544
Calcium polyphosphates
not permitted in Australia
E545
Ammonium polyphosphates
not permitted in Australia
E551
Silicon dioxide
no adverse effects are known in food use
E552
Calcium silicate
no known adverse effects, antacid
E553(a)
Magnesium silicates
not permitted in Australia
E553(b)
Talc
has been linked to stomach cancer, typical products are polished rice, chocolate, confectionary
E554
Sodium aluminium silicate
Aluminium is known to be neurtoxic
E556
Calcium aluminium silicate
see 554
E558
Bentonite
no known adverse effects
E559
Kaolins
no known adverse effects
E570
Stearic acid
no known adverse effects
E572
Magnesium stearate
no known adverse effects in food use
E575
Glucono delta-lactone
no known adverse effects
E576
Sodium gluconate
not permitted in Australia
E577
Potassium gluconate
no known adverse effects
E578
Calcium gluconate
no known adverse effects
E579
Ferrous gluconate
seems safe in small quantities

Number
Name
Comments
E620
L-Glutamic acid
might cause similar problems as MSG(621), young children should avoid it
E621
Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
can be an allergen, not permitted in foods for infants and young children
E622
Monopotassium glutamate
can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea , abdominal cramps. Typical products are low sodium salt substitutes
E623
Calcium glutamate
no known adverse effects
E624
Monoammonium L-glutamate
no known adverse effects
E625
Magnesium di-L-glutamate
no known adverse effects
E627
Disodiumguanylate
not permitted in foods for infants and young children
E631
Disodium inosinate
not permitted in foods for infants and young children
E635
Sodium 5'ribonucleotide
not permitted in Australia
E636
Maltol
no known adverse effects
E637
Ethyl maltol
no known adverse effects

Number
Name
Comments
E900
Dimethylpoly-siloxane
no known adverse effects
E901
Beeswaxes
occasionally causes allergic reactions
E903
Carnauba wax
occasionally causes allergic reactions
E904
Shellac
occasionally causes irritations of the skin
E905
Paraffins
may inhibit absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins, mild laxative, there may be a link to bowel cancer. Typical products are dried fruit, confectionary, collagen
E907
Refined microcrystalline wax
not permitted in Australia
E920
L-cysteine and its hydrochlorides
no known adverse effects
E924
Potassium bromate/center>
large quantities can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pain. Typical products are flour products
E925
Chlorine
destroys nutrients, carcinogen, in some areas tab water is contaminated with it, to make it 'safer' to drink. Typical products are flour products
E926
Chlorine dioxide
well.....basically see 925
E927
Azodicarbonamide
not permitted in Australia
E928
Benzol peroxide
asthmatics and people with a history of allergies BEWARE, see 210
E931
Nitrogen
seems safe
E932
Nitrous oxide
seems quite safe in small quantities
E950
Acesulphane potassium
???
E951
Aspartame
artificial sweetener, too many adverse effects possible to list !!!
E952
Cyclamic acid
possible carcinogen, not permitted in the USA and UK
E954
saccharines
not too bad in small amounts, I think
E957
Thaumatin
artificial sweetener; put it that way....the 'acceptable' daily intake has not been specified.
E965
Hydrogenated glucose syrup
mild laxative
E967
Xylitol
nobody knows
E1200
Polydextrose
seems safe in small doses
E1201
Polyvinylpyrrolidone
no adverse effects known
E1202
Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone
no known adverse effects
E1400-1450
starches
no known adverse effects
E1505
Triethyl acetate
part becomes alcohol in the body
E1510
Ethanol
alcohol
E1517, E1518
Glycerol acetates
seems safe
E1520
Propylene glycol
toxic at 'high doses'

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